2019-03-07 07:38






  51. The best evidence for the layered-mantle thesis is the well-established fact that volcanic rocks found on oceanic islands,islands believed to result from mantle plumes arising from the lower mantle,are composed of material fundamentally different from that of the mid-ocean ridge system, whose source,most geologists contend,is the upper mantle. 對于地幔分層論點來說,最好的證據乃這樣一個確認的事實,即在那些海洋島嶼--這些島嶼據信是源于由下層地幔升上來的地幔柱狀溶巖流(mantle plume)--上發現的火山巖石,是由與海洋中部山脊系統的物質根本不同的物質構成的,而這一海洋中部山脊系統的成因,大多數地質學家論辯道,為上部地幔。

  52. Some geologists,however,on the basis of observations concerning mantle xenoliths, argue that the mantle is not layered,but that heterogeneity is created by fluids rich in "incompatible elements" (elements tending toward liquid rather than solid state)percolating upward and transforming portions of the upper mantle irregularly,according to the vagaries of the fluids' pathways. 但是,某些地質學家,以對地幔捕虜巖體(xenolith)所作的觀察為依據,指出地幔并非是分層排列的,相反,地幔的異質性是由那些富含"不相容成分"的流質構成的,這些成分趨向于流體而非固體的狀態,自下而上滲透擴散,并依照這些流質流向的任意性,不規則地將上部地幔的某些部分予以改變。

  53. Fallois proposed that Proust had tried to begin a novel in 1908, abandoned it for what was to be a long demonstration of Saint-Beuve's blindness to the real nature of great writing , found the essay giving rise to personal memories and fictional developments ,and allowed these to take over it a steadily developing novel. F認為,P在1908年試圖開始寫一部小說,又為了寫一部批判S-B的 偉大作品的真正本質的視而不見的長篇的證明而放棄了這部小說,其后又發現這一論文又勾起了其個人記憶及小說情節的萌生,使得后者取而代之形成了一部穩定展開的小說。

  54. The very richness and complexity of the meaningful relationships that kept presenting and rearranging themselves on all levels,from abstract intelligence to profound dreamy feelings, made it difficult for Proust to set them out coherently. 各種有意義的聯系在所有的層次上,自抽象的理性至深刻的夢幻般的情感,層出不窮并不斷重新組合排列;正是這些有意義的聯系的豐富性和復雜性,致使普魯斯特難于將它們錯落有致地安排好。

  55. But those of who hoped, with Kolb, that Kolb's newly published complete edition of Proust's correspondence for 1909 would document the process in greater detail are disappointed. 但是我們當中的那些希望(也算上K本人)K新出版的P1909年書信的全集能夠更加詳細的記錄下這一過程的人都大失所望。

  56. Now we must also examine the culture as we Mexican Americans have experienced it , passing from a sovereign people to compatriots with newly arriving settlers to , finally ,a conquered people - a charter minority on our own land. 現在我們必須也按照我們墨西哥裔的美國人的經歷來審視這個文化,我們的經歷是從一個主權的民族變成了新來的定居者的同胞,在最終淪落成為一個被征服的民族--在我們自己的土地上的契約的少數民族。

  57. It is possible to make specific complementary DNA's (cDNA's)that can serve as molecular probes to seek out the messenger RNA's (mRNA's) of the peptide hormones. If brain cells are making the hormones,the cells will contain these Mrna'S. If the products the brain cells make resemble the hormones but are not identical to them,then the cDNA's should still bind to these mRNA's,but should not bind as tightly as they would to mRNA's for the true hormones. 科學家可以制造出特異的(specific)互補DNA's(cDNA's),以此作為分子探子(molecular probe),探覓出肽激素的信使RNA's(mRNA's)。如果大腦正在制造著肽激素,則細胞就會含有這些信使RNA's.假若細胞所制造的產品類似于肽激素但并非與這些肽激素全然相同,那么,互補cDNA's應仍然和這些信使mDNA's粘結的程度。含有這些mRNA's的腦細胞然后就可以被分離開來,研究者可對其信使RNA's進行解碼,以確定它們的蛋白質產品究竟是什么,并確定這些蛋白質產品在何種程度上類似于真正的肽激素。

  58. The molecular approach to detecting peptide hormones using cDNA probes should also be much faster than the immunological method because it can take years of tedious purifications to isolate peptide hormones and then develop antiserums to them. 采用cDNA探子來測定肽激素的這一分子生物學方法同時也應該比免疫學的方法速度來得快,因為對于免疫的方法來說,需耗費好幾年枯燥的提純進程,方能將肽素分離了出來,然后再培養出針對它們的抗血清。

  59. Nevertheless, researchers of the Pleistocene epoch have developed all sorts of more or less fanciful model schemes of how they would have arranged the Ice Age had they been in charge of events. 然而,研究P時代的研究者發展除了各種各樣的或多或少有些奇怪思想的模型系統,用來顯示如果由他們來決定地質事件的話他們將會如何安排冰川紀。

  60. This succession was based primarily on a series of deposits and events not directly related to glacial and interglacial periods,rather than on the more usual modern method of studying biological remains found in interglacial beds themselves interstratified within glacial deposits. 這一序列演替(succession)所依據的,主要是一系列與冰川期和間冰期并不直接相關的地質沉積物和地質事件,而不是依據更為普遍的現代方法,去研究間冰層(interglacial bed)中所發現的生物殘留物,而這些間冰層本身又在冰川沉積物發生間層化(interstatified)。






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