2019-03-07 07:34






  01. That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted. 那種性別比例能在最大程度上增加一個個體所能擁有的后代數量,并因此能在最大程度上增加所傳遞到后代身上去的基因復制品的數量。

  02. (This is) A desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give away abruptly to the desire on the part of what we might consider a novelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture of a flower . (這是一種)照亮現實的欲望,此欲望從來就不會唐突的取代后面的那種欲望,后者是我們可以將其部分的理解為一個兼任小說加和科學家的人想要去準確并具體的記錄下一朵花的結構和文理的那種意義上的欲望。

  03. Hardy's weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings and goings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate and sustain the energetic and risky ones. 哈代的缺陷一方面緣起于他的某種明顯的無能,無法控制好那結不盡相同的創作沖動的穿梭往來;另一方面緣起于他不愿意去培養和維持那些富于生機活力和風險性強的創作沖動。

  04. Virginia Woolf's provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics,since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness. 弗吉尼亞.伍爾夫(Virginia Woolf)在創作《黛洛維夫人》(Mrs. Dalloway)時有關其創作意圖的這番發人深思的陳述,迄今為止一貫為文學評論家們所忽略,因為它突出反映了她諸多文學興趣中某一方面,而這一方面則與人們對"詩性"小說家(poetic novelist)所形成的傳統見解大相徑庭。所謂的"詩性"小說家,所關注的是審視想入非非和白日夢幻的諸般狀態,并致力于追尋個體意識的通幽曲徑。

  05. As she put it in The Common Reader , "It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote ;and yet , as we read him , we are absorbing morality at every pore ." 就像她在《致普通讀者》一書中所表達的那樣,"盡管可以毫無疑問的說,沒有任何法律被指定出來,也沒有任何高樓大廈被建立起來是因為喬叟說了什么或者寫了什么;然而,當我們讀它的書的時候,我們身上每一個毛孔都充滿了道德"

  06. With the conclusion of a burst activity , the lactic acid level is high in the body fluids , leaving the large animal vulnerable to attack until the acid is reconverted , via oxidative metabolism , by the liver into glucose , which is then sent (in part )back to the muscles for glycogen resynthesis . 隨著爆發出來的運動的結束,再體液中乳酸含量會變得很高,使得大型動物處于容易受到攻擊的狀態,直到乳酸通過有氧新陳代謝,被肝臟轉化成(convert into)葡萄糖,而葡萄糖接下來又會(部分)傳送回肌肉中重新合成糖原 。

  07. Although Gutman admits that forced separation by sale was frequent,he shows that the slaves' preference,revealed most clearly on plantations where sale was infrequent,was very much for stable monogamy. 雖然古特曼承認,由于奴隸買賣而造成的被迫離散甚為頻繁,但他還是證明,奴隸的偏愛--在那些奴隸買賣并不頻繁的種植園上被最為顯著地揭示出來--在很大程度上側重于穩定的一夫一妻制(monogamy)。

  08. Gutman argues convincingly that the stability of the Black family encouraged the transmission of-and so was crucial in sustaining-the Black heritage of folklore,music,and religious expression from one generation to another,a heritage that slaves were continually fashioning out of their African and American experiences. 古特曼人令人信服地論辨道,黑人家庭的穩定有助于包括民間傳說、音樂、及宗教表達在內的黑人文化遺產一代一代傳遞下去,因而在維持文化遺產方面也起著至關重要的作用,而對于這種文化遺產,黑奴們不斷地從其非洲和美洲的經歷中予以豐富發展。

  09. This preference for exogamy,Gutman suggests,may have derived from West African rules governing marriage,which,though they differed from one tribal group to another,all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. 古特曼表示,這種對于外部通婚的偏愛很有可能緣起于西部非洲制約著婚姻的規定,盡管這些規定在一個和另一個部落群體之間不盡相同,但都涉及到某種對近親聯姻(union with close kin)的禁止。

  10. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States,but his definition of racial prejudice as "racially-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition," can be interpreted as also including hostility toward such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. 該社會學家的命題當被應用于針對美國黑人的歧視時,相對而言尚能適用,但他對種族偏見所下的定義--即"以種族為基礎的、針對某個群體的消級的先入之見,而該群體在任何特定的種族競爭地區則被普遍認作一種族"--可被理解成同樣也襄括了針對加利福尼亞州的中國人以及中世紀的猶太人這樣一些種族群體的敵視態度。


  11. Such variations in size, shape,chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold,and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. 類似于這些已經被在神經細胞中證明的在大小、形狀、化學過程、產生的速度、興奮閾值及其類似的方面上所發生變化,當他們被用來與大腦的體驗以可能的方式聯系起來的時候,他們在重要性上仍然是微不足道的。

  12. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types ;however , proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences , which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits . 有可能通過其他方法來證明神經元種類間的細微的結構差異;可是,這樣的證據是缺乏的,即神經沖動的性質或者狀態是受這些差異所影響的,而這些差異看起來卻能影響神經網絡的發育模式。

  13. Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved,the doctrine was generally abandoned in favor of the opposing view,namely,that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as "common currency" throughout the nervous system. 盡管在神經能量上存在著質的不同,這一點從來都沒有在嚴格的意義上被反對過,但是以上教條通常被拋棄掉,而轉向相反的觀點,即:神經沖動從根本上本質相同,而且被當作"一種普通流"在整個神經系統中傳播。

  14. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size,number, arrangement,and interconnection of the nerve cells,but as far as psycho neural correlations were concerned,the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences. 盡管其他實驗顯示在神經細胞的大小、數量、排列和相互連接上有一些小的差異,但是就心理-神經的關系而言,這些感官區域彼此之間的明顯的相似性看起來比起微小的差異更為令人注目。

  15. Although some experiments show that,as an object becomes familiar,its internal representation becomes more holistic and the recognition process correspondingly more parallel,the weight of evidence seems to support the serial hypothesis,at least for objects that are not notably simple and familiar. 雖然某些實驗表明,隨著一個物體變得熟悉起來,其內心再現圖像亦更具整體感,辨認過程相應地更趨于平行,但證據的砝碼似乎在支持序列假設(serial hypothesis),至少是對于那些不甚簡單、不甚熟悉的物體來說.

  16. In large part as a consequence of the feminist movement,historians have focused a great deal of attention in recent years on determining more accurately the status of women in various periods. 在很大程度上,由于女權主義運動(feminist movement)的緣故,史學家近年來匯聚了大量的注意力,來更為準確地確定婦女在各個歷史時期的地位。 Focus A on B;

  17. If one begins by examining why ancients refer to Amazons , it becomes clear that ancient Greek descriptions of such societies were meant not so much to represent observed historical fact -real Amazonian societies - but rather to offer "moral lessons" on the supposed outcome of women's rule in their own society . 如果我們先研究一下為什么古人會提到亞馬遜人,下面的一點就變得清晰了,那就是古希臘對于這種社會的廟睡不是太多的被用來表達觀察的歷史事實--真正的亞麻遜社會的--而是為了對于婦女在其社會中的統治的預期后果提供一種"道德教導"。

  18. Thus,for instance,it may come as a shock to mathematicians to learn that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is not a literally correct description of this atom,but only an approximation to a somewhat more correct equation taking account of spin,magnetic dipole,and relativistic effects;and that this corrected equation is itself only an imperfect approximation to an infinite set of quantum field-theoretical equations. 因此,舉例來說,對數學家而言,了解到下述情形可能會令其驚愕不已,即薛定諤(Schrodinger)的氫原子方程式并非是對該原子作出的一種絕然正確的描述,而僅僅是個近似值,趨近于一個在某種程度上更為正確的將自旋、磁性偶極子、以及相對論效應考慮在內的方程式;而這個得以糾正的方程式就其本身而言也只是一個不完美的近似值,趨近于無窮無盡的一整套量子場論方程式。

  19. The physicist rightly dreads precise argument,since an argument that is convincing only if it is precise loses all its force if the assumptions on which it is based are slightly changed,whereas an argument that is convincing though imprecise may well be stable under small perturbations of its underlying assumptions. 物理學家恐懼于那些精確無誤的論據不無道理,因為某種只有在它是精確無誤的條件下才令人置信的論據,一旦它賴于建立其上的假設稍有變化,便會失去它一部的作用;而與此相反,一個盡管并不精確無誤但卻令人置信的論據,在其基本假設(underlying assumption)稍微受干擾的情況下,仍然有可能是站得住腳的。

  20. However,as they gained cohesion,the Bluestockings came to regard themselves as a women's group and to possess a sense of female solidarity lacking in the salonnieres,who remained isolated from one another by the primacy each held in her own salon. 起初,藍襪女們確實模仿了法國沙龍女主人,將男性襄括到其小圈子中來。然則,隨著她們獲得的凝聚力,她們漸趨將自己視作一女性團體,并擁有了一種婦女團結意識,而這種意識在法國沙龍女主人身上則蕩然無存,因為她們每個人在其自己的沙龍中自視甚高而彼此孤立隔絕開來。






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